The early stages of research and development, in which commercial competitors are willing to cooperate, because the work is not tied to certain products and processes in such a way that the results of the work must be proprietary). The development of military systems and equipment for which specific requirements have been defined is not included. It is typically funded under Advanced Technology Development Programs (Budget Activity 3) as part of the DoD`s Research, Development, Testing and Evaluation (RTD&E) funds. Prior authorization, the written or electronic authorization of a doD Grants or an agreement agent proving prior consent. If prior authorization is required for an activity or expense that would result in a direct cost to a DoD award, the signing of the Grants or Agreements Officer on a distinction that includes the planned activity or expense in the approved volume of work or budget fulfills the condition of prior authorization. . . .